Yoghurt is a dairy product made by use of low fat fermented milk. It is then blended with other ingredients to give color and flavor. This process includes changing the composition of milk and pasteurization.When milk arrives at the processing plant its composition is modified.

This includes reduction of the fat content by use of a milk separator to remove the cream which contains this fat. From this milk separator the skim milk is passed to a storage tank to test for fat and solid matter content. The solid content may be increased to desired levels by evaporation, adding concentrated milk or milk powder. Increasing of the solid content add to the nutritional value while making the milk more stable during the fermentation process. It also enables the formation of firmer yoghurt. Other flavors are usually added before packaging to ensure that the milk doesn’t disintegrate during the fermentation stage.After the milk has been passed from the milk separator and the solid content adjusted, stabilizers are added and the milk is then pasteurized.

This is important to destroy all the microorganisms that may interfere with the controlled fermentation process. It also serves to denature the whey proteins and therefore gives the yoghurt finer texture and more body. Pasteurization is also important in helping the release of compounds that stimulate the growth of starter culture. Homogenization is also done at this stage. This in the case where the milk used has a fat content.

A machine called a homogenizer. Milk is passed through a small opening s in the machine to break up the fat globules to obtain smoother and creamier milk. Milk that still has its fat content obviously has passed through the milk separator. Milk is heat treated to kill all the organisms that may be present in the milk as these are not desired.The fermentation process is controlled to ensure that optimum levels of acidity are achieved. The temperature and acidity is closely checked and monitored.

Fermentation is done in a highly sterilized stainless steel container to ensure that optimum conditions are achieved. From this stage the yoghurt is known as set yoghurt and the final processes of blending, agitation, flavoring and packaging are then done. Agitation of the set yoghurt is important to change it from its jelly like state to drinkable yoghurt. The product is ready for consumption and marketing.